Lead 12V batteries will be around for a while as auxiliary 12V batteries are used in automotive vehicles, in internal combustion engines (ICEs) and at all levels of hybridisation. From micro, mild, full and plug-in hybrids to electric cars, the battery’s main function is to support the 12V loads and to ensure the quality of the on-board net, as well as to ensure the safety manoeuvrings in case of emergency. Furthermore, start- stop functionality, cyclability and cranking are tailored to the specific vehicle architecture, although the cranking feature might disappear in the future.
The further market penetration of micro, mild, full and plug-in electric vehicles will not impact the 12V auxiliary battery market in the next 10 years as they are all already equipped with these batteries.
Lead and lithium technologies are complementary in terms of performance, recycling and cost. For auxiliary applications, lead batteries are advantageous for their high temperature life, low temperature performance, recycling efficiency and cost, but could improve in terms of cycle life and energy density. The advantage of Li-ion batteries, however, is in their energy and power densities and cycle life at ambient temperatures. However, high cost, safety and recyclability, as well as extreme temperature performances, must be improved in order to become competitive with lead batteries.
Globally, analysts predict the lead battery market could grow from 360GWh in 2020 to 430GWh in 2030.
Source: Eurobat BATTERY INNOVATION ROADMAP 2030
Source: Minerals & Metals Review – February 2021
Sulfation occurs in every lead acid battery.
80% of battery failure is due to chemical failure, and the root cause of chemical failure is sulfation.
If sulfation is not treated, it will slowly but surely reduce the capacity of the battery, increase the electric resistance, reduce the operation voltage and eventually lead to battery failure.